||Though commercially and economically important in artisanal fisheries of Niger River in Benin, the diversity of Mochokidae is poorly known. The current ichtyological research documents Mochokidae fishes of the Niger River in Benin in order to contribute to management. Fish samplings were performed monthly for 18 months using gillnets, castnets, longlines and seines. Overall, 14 species belonging to one genus, Synodontis, were inventoried. Spatially, less degraded sites, Money and Tounga in Benin, and Gaya in Niger Republic, were more speciose and comprised 12, 12 and 11 species, respectively, while 3 species, Synodontis schall, Synodontis membranaceus, and Synodontis clarias were recorded in the disturbed site. Seasonally, the dry season was the most speciose period where all the 14 species occurred. Currently, the Niger River is under severe degradation factors that affect the fish resources. Further investigation on the Mochokidae community structure is required to implement a community-based approach of species management.