||The Pendjari Biosphere Reserve located in the Sudanian zone of Bénin, is a protected area well managed, but mainly aimed at wild animal conservation. This study assessed its effectiveness to conserve habitat species composition and population structure of three endangered African tree species: Afzelia africana Sm., Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. and Khaya senegalensis (Desv.) A. Juss. We randomly sampled 120 plots in the protected and surrounding unprotected habitats by inventorying plant species. For the three target species, we estimated adult and juvenile densities and recorded size classes. According to floristic composition four habitats groups were recognized in relation to human disturbance, vegetation type, and moisture. These were protected savannas, unprotected savannas, old fallows and gallery forests. The estimated adult densities of A. africana were similar between protected (14 ± 1.2 tree/ha) and unprotected savannas (17 ± 0.9 tree/ha) while for P. erinaceus the adult density was significantly higher in protected (12 ± 3.7 tree/ha) than in unprotected savannas (5 ± 1.9 tree/ha). Estimated adult density of K. senegalensis was also significantly higher in protected gallery forest (40 ± 5.8 tree/ha) than in unprotected one (29 ± 4.8 tree/ha). Juvenile densities of A. africana, K. senegalensis and P. erinaceus were higher in protected habitats than in unprotected ones but the difference was not significant. Skewness coefficient indicated that populations of investigated trees were declining in their protected habitats. However, in the case of A. africana and K. senegalensispopulations seemed to be mostly threatened in the protected area. We concluded that although the studied protected area is effective to conserve some habitats species compositions, protection is not sufficient to guarantee future conservation of some threatened tree species.