||Background: The influence of genetic predictors of inflammation and atopy on occupational asthma in apprentices is not known.
Objectives: To assess the influence of genetic polymorphisms of IL4RA, IL13, TNFA, IL1A, and IL5 on the decline of lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in a prospective follow-up study of baker/pastry maker and hairdresser apprentices.
Methods: A total of 351 apprentices were included in the study. We performed skin testing, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement, and methacholine hyperreactivity testing at the initial visit and during and at the end of the 18-month training period. Gene variants of IL4RA, IL13, TNFA, IL1A, and IL5 were determined in DNA from nasal lavage.
Results: IL13 R130Q/IL4RA S478P or IL13 R130Q//IL4RA Q551R were significant predictors of the decrease of forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (P .006). Genotype GG of TNFAG308A was associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the whole population and in nonatopic individuals (90.63% vs 9.38%; odds ratio, 3.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-12.83). TNFA GA and IL5 CC and TNFA GA and IL1A CC were 2 epistatic predictors of exhaled nitrogen monoxide decrease during follow-up (P 1⁄4 .02 and P 1⁄4 .004, respec- tively). The association with TNFA GA and IL1A CC was the most significant in nonatopic bakers (P < .001). Conclusion: We evidenced a predicting influence of IL13/IL4RA and TNFA in the early exposure to allergens and irritants that precedes occupational asthma. The significance of the associations in the absence of atopy suggests an influence of the genetics predictors related to inflammatory pathways.