||Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shiftingcultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) oftenresult in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus -yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix /maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/ maize intercropping yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linearmodel (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contributiont of the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.