||Raw milk is untreated food consumed in most African countries in the south of Sahara. In order to assess the microbiological risks associated with the consumption of this food, a study was conducted from January through March 2010, in two large ranching areas of the Republic of Benin. The sanitary quality of raw milk was assessed on 42 random samples from twelve farms and six markets in the municipality of Gogounou in the Borgou Province and in the municipality of Dassa-Zoume in the Collines Province. The analysis of milk samples, water samples used for washing utensils of milking collected in each ranching prospected, revealed that samples of Dassa-Zoume were the more contaminated by fecal and anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacteria. These results indicate the non-compliance with rules of good hygiene at milking, storing, transporting and selling milk. The consumption of raw cow milk presents dire health risk to the population of the study areas.