||The present study examined farmer’s indigenous knowledge on morphological variation, preference in product traits, management practices, and regeneration of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine. Surveys were conducted on a total of 131 users of different ages randomly selected from seven different sociocultural groups (Anii, Kotocoli, Nagot, Boo, Ditamari, Natimba and Waama) taking into account gender differences in Benin. Principal component analysis was carried out to identify correlations between the characteristics of P. butyracea. Local people in the twelve villages investigated used 13 criteria (height, trunk diameter, trunk color, trunk structure, distance from water, tree age, fruit pulp color, fruit size, fruit shape, number of seeds per fruit, seed color, seed size, and seed shape) to differentiate P. butyracea trees growing in traditional agroforestry systems. Older people were found to have greater knowledge than younger people to distinguish P. butyracea. Importantly, 77% of respondents of all ethnic groups confirmed that no protection measure was taken to conserve P. butyracea trees. This identified knowledge can constitute a guarantee for the development of strategies for conservation, domestication, and sustainable use of P. butyracea genetic resources because one of the best ways to validate our results to local people is to consider their knowledge and to promote the development of their experiences.