||Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr. is a priority food tree species in West Africa, but its use pattern and conservation is little known across diferent sociocultural areas of Benin. In this study, we analyse the determinants of D. microcarpum traditional uses pattern and how these determinants influence the species’ conservation in Benin. Thus, 730 respondents were participated in semi-structure interview across the North and Central regions of Benin. The information related tollocal names, traditional uses of different plant parts, management systems and conservation of D. microcarpum was recorded from the respondents. Use value (UV), ethnobotanical use value (EUV) and organ use value (OUV) were calculated. These statistics were used to assess the structure and variability of traditional use categories of plant parts among the sociocultural groups, gender and age groups. Results indicated that local names were spatially structured and linked to loca lcommunities’ cultural origins, according to the recent human migration roads in West Africa. In total, 42 traditional uses of seven categories were gathered. UV in relation to sociocultural groups ranges from 7.62 (Idatcha and Fon) to 16.08 (Peulh and Lokpa); within the gender, UV ranges from 9.96 (women) to 11.15 (men); and within the age groups, UV ranges from 9.37 [18–30 years old] to 14.14 [65–100]. The species’ UV signifcantly depended on respondents’ sociocultural group, age and gender. Moreover, the age, gender and sociocultural groups signifcantly influenced the species’ use pattern. Ethnobotanical use value ranges from 0.35 (fodder) to 6.22 (traditional human medicine). OUV ranges from 2.62% (ower) to 42.38% (leaf). The various uses of the species’ roots, leaves land bark in traditional pharmacology and their high-quality firewood and tasty fruits determined the various local management systems. Thus, considering the current threats (intensive use of the roots, trunk, leaves and branches, and habitat degradation) conservation measures are needed to ensure the survival, conservation of distribution pattern and sustainable use of the species.