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[ Article ] The current distribution and characterization of the L1014F resistance allele of the kdr gene in three malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis) in Benin (West Africa)

Date de soumission: 03-02-2021
Année de Publication: 2019
Entité/Laboratoire Autres laboratoires
Document type : Article
Discipline(s) : Génétiques et Processus Génétiques
Titre The current distribution and characterization of the L1014F resistance allele of the kdr gene in three malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis) in Benin (West Africa)
Auteurs Koukpo Come Z. [1], Fassinou Arsène Jacques Y. H. [2], Ossè Razaki A. [3], Agossa Fiacre R. [4], Sewadé Wilfrid T. [5], Aboubakar Sidick [6], Akogbeto Martin C. [7], SEZONLIN MICHEL [8],
Journal: Malaria Journal
Catégorie Journal: Internationale
Impact factor: 0
Volume Journal: 9
DOI: 10.1186
Resume Background: The fight against malaria faces various biological obstacles, including the resistance of parasites to anti- malarial drugs and the resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides. The resistance of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used to impregnate mosquito nets, is known in Benin; the expansion of this resistance is influenced by the existence of gene flow between species, otherwise by the presence or absence of the kdr mutation in them. The objective of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of An. gambiae and the level of expression of the pyrethroid resistance kdr gene in seven agro-ecological zones of Benin. Methods: The study was conducted in 18 localities belonging to seven agro-ecological zones where environmental parameters varied. The sites represent the main areas of eco-epidemiological malaria in Benin. Anopheles gambiae larvae were collected in natural breeding sites using ladles and dipping method and reared under standard condi- tions. These larvae were reared under standard conditions of temperature and humidity (26 to 30 °C and 60 to 90%) at the insectarium of the Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC). Adult female mosquitoes having emerged are morphologically and molecularly identified. Homozygous resistant (1014F/1014F), homozygous sensitive (1014L/1014L) and heterozygous (1014F/1014L) genotypes of the L1014F kdr gene mutation are determined by PCR. Results: A total of 677 An. gambiae was subjected at the PCR. The results revealed the presence of three vector spe- cies of the An. gambiae complex, of which 409 Anopheles coluzzii, 259 An. gambiae, 5 hybrids (An. coluzzii/An. gambiae) and 4 Anopheles arabiensis in the different agro-ecological zones. The four An. arabiensis were only found in Dassa, a locality in the cotton zone of central Benin. The frequency of distribution of the L1014F allele of the kdr gene varies from 84.48 to 100% in An. gambiae, from 80 to 100% in An. coluzzii and from 0 to 75% in An. arabiensis in the different agro-ecological zones. Moreover, a significant difference is generally observed in the distribution of the L1014F allele (P < 0.05). By comparing in pairs the distribution frequencies of this allele in the two species by agro-ecological zone, only a significant difference is noted in the central cotton and fishery zones (P = 0.0496). Conclusion: In summary, even if the data are in small portions, the An. Arabiensis species was found only in central Benin and the L1014F allele of the kdr gene is widespread and seems to fix in all the species recorded in the differ- ent agro-ecological zones. This situation amplifies the problem of resistance, which could eventually be a significant obstacle for the malaria vectors control. Similarly, a study of their genetic structure via the L1014F allele is necessary in order to put in place strategies to manage this resistance. These strategies will take into account both the ecology and the genetic diversity of the organisms involved to preserve the effectiveness of pyrethroids, the only insecticides used for the impregnation of mosquito nets.
Mots clés Malaria, kdr, Gene flow, An. gambiae, Pyrethroids, Benin, West Africa
Pages 1 - 9
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