||Population Dynamics of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in Rural and Urban Settings Before an Indoor Residual Spraying Campaign in Northern Benin
Salako Valère Kolawolé ,
Ossè Razaki A. ,
Padonou Gil G. ,
Dagnon Fortuné ,
Aı̈kpon Rock ,
Kpanou Casimir ,
Sagbohan Hermann ,
Sovi Arthur ,
SEZONLIN MICHEL ,
Akogbeto Martin C. ,
||VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES
||Background: The purpose of this report is to provide information on Culicidae diversity; biting behavior and
spatio-seasonal variation of abundance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in rural and urban
settings of the Alibori and Donga regions, Northern Benin, where an indoor residual spraying (IRS) campaign to
control malaria is planned.
Methods: Both human landing catches, associated with pyrethrum spray catches were used to monitor the
mosquito populations in 12 sites with 1 urban and 1 rural located in each of the 6 districts randomly selected in
the two targeted regions. After morphological identification of all mosquito specimens, biting behavior and
density of An. gambiae s.l. and Cx quinquefasciatus were studied. PCR was also performed on An. gambiae s.l.,
to identify sibling species and its seasonal variation.
Results: A total of 10,367 mosquitoes were captured, related to 14 species of the genera, Anopheles, Aedes,
Culex and Mansonia. Of the total species collection, 40.39% were An. gambiae s.l. and 56.85% were Cx.
quinquefasciatus. An. gambiae s.l. was more abundant in Donga (2521 specimens) compared with Alibori (1666
specimens). The opposite trend was observed with Cx. quinquefasciatus (2162 specimens in Donga against
4028 in Alibori). An. gambiae s.l. was predominant and displayed a higher blood feeding rate in rural areas,
whereas Cx. quinquefasciatus was in majority in urban areas. An. gambiae s.l. was more endophagic, whereas
Cx. quinquefasciatus showed similar indoor and outdoor biting behavior. An. gambiae s.l. was composed of An.
coluzzii found in majority in the drought, and An. gambiae, which was predominant in the rainy season.
Conclusion: The predominance of the malaria vector, An. gambiae s.l. and their higher blood feeding rate and
their significantly high endophagy in rural areas indicate that these areas should be primarily targeted with the
IRS operations to have a substantial impact on malaria transmission. Endophagy, characteristic of An. gambiae
s.l. in our study area, suggests that IRS will have a positive impact on vector control if implemented 1 week
before June that is the onset of the rainy season.
||Anopheles gambiae s.l., Culex quinquefasciatus, biting behavior, seasonal variation, Alibori, Donga,
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